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Nickelodeon (1977)

"Putting kids first"

Type :  

  Summary  

Nickelodeon, often simply called Nick and originally called The Pinwheel Network, is an American children's channel owned by Viacom and operated under its Nickelodeon Kids and Family Group. The channel is primarily aimed at children in grade school and early teens, with their weekday morning program block aimed at preschoolers ages 2–6. Since 2006, Nickelodeon has been run by Cyma Zarghami. It is ranked as the #1 cable channel as of 2011, and had been promoted as "The First Kids' Network," as it was the first American television network aimed at children since the Pinwheel days.

Nickelodeon's broadcast day runs on Sundays from 6 a.m.- 8 p.m., Monday-Thursdays from 7 a.m.-8 p.m., Fridays from 7 a.m.-9 p.m., and Saturdays from 6 a.m.-10 p.m. . Since 1985, it shares its channel space with Nick at Nite, a night time channel that airs sitcom reruns during the interim hours. It is treated as a separate channel from Nickelodeon by A.C. Nielsen Co. for ratings purposes. The two services are sometimes referred to under the collective name "Nickelodeon/Nick at Nite", due to their association as two individual channels sharing the same channel space.

  Biography  

 Early history (1977–1979)

Nickelodeon's pre-history began on December 1, 1977 when QUBE, the first two-way interactive cable TV system was launched in Columbus, Ohio by Warner Cable (owned by Warner Communications, and an ancestor of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment). One of the specialized channels available to subscribers of the QUBE system was The Pinwheel Network, a cable channel offering children's programming.

 Relaunch as Nickelodeon and national expansion (1979–1990)
Pinwheel was re-launched as Nickelodeon on April 1, 1979, and despite its prior history on the QUBE system under the Pinwheel name, Nickelodeon has declared that 1979 is the network's official launch year. It began airing on various Warner Cable systems, beginning in Buffalo, New York and quickly expanded its audience reach. Originally a commercial-free cable channel, shows airing during its broadcast day (which initially ran from 10 a.m.-10 p.m. ET on weekdays and 9 a.m.-8 p.m. ET on weekends) included Video Comic Book, Pop Clips and the long-running Pinwheel (now formatted as a daily hour-long series that ran in a 3-5 hour block format, and was a precursor to the Nick Jr. block) along with other shows such as America Goes Bananaz, Nickel Flicks and By the Way. In 1980, new shows were added to the lineup, including Dusty's Treehouse, First Row Features, Special Delivery, What Will They Think Of Next?, Livewire, and Hocus Focus.


The network's first logo had a mime looking into a Nickelodeon machine that was placed in the N. In between television programs, the filler would be a mime, and the mime would turn the crank on the Nickelodeon as soon as the next program was about to start. As the channel signed off for the night, Star Channel would take over the channel space; this ended when ARTS launched. The second logo had the word "Nickelodeon" in Pinwheel's logo font. The third logo was a silver pinball with the "Nickelodeon" title in multicolor. Nickelodeon's first popular children's television series was You Can't Do That on Television, a Canadian sketch comedy that made its American debut on Nickelodeon in late 1981. On April 12, 1981, the channel extended its hours from 8 a.m.-9 p.m. ET by turning its channel over to the Alpha Repertory Television Service and, later until 1985, A&E Network after ARTS merged with NBC's struggling cable service The Entertainment Channel.

In 1983, Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment began divesting its assets and spun off Nickelodeon and two other channels, MTV and the now-defunct Radio Television Station into the newly-formed subsidiary; in order to increase revenue, Nickelodeon began to accept PBS-style corporate underwriting for its programming. The green slime originally featured on You Can't Do That On Television was then adopted by the channel as a primary feature of many of its shows, including Double Dare. In the early years, other shows such as Livewire, Standby: Lights, Camera, Action, The Third Eye and Mr. Wizard's World were part of the regular Nickelodeon time slots.

The channel struggled at first, having lost $10 million by 1984, mostly due to a lack of successful programs including failed shows such as Against the Odds and Going Great, and finishing dead last among the cable channels. After firing the previous staff, MTV Networks president Bob Pittman turned to Fred Seibert and Alan Goodman, who created MTV's iconic IDs a few years earlier, to reinvigorate Nickelodeon. Seibert and Goodman's company, Fred/Alan , teamed up with Tom Corey and Scott Nash of the advertising firm Corey McPherson Nash to replace the "Pinball" logo with the "orange splat" logo with the name Nickelodeon written in Balloon font, that would be used in hundreds of different variations for the next quarter century. Fred/Alan also enlisted the help of animators, writers, producers and doo-wop group The Jive Five to create new channel IDs. Within six months of the rebranding, Nickelodeon would become the dominant channel in children programming and has remained so for more than 25 years, even in the midst of increasing competition in recent years from other kids-oriented cable channels such as Disney Channel and Cartoon Network. The same year as the rebrand, Nickelodeon began accepting traditional advertising.

In January 1985, after A&E dropped its partnership with Nickelodeon and became its own 24-hour channel, Nickelodeon simply went to a test screen after sign-off. That July, Nickelodeon added a new nighttime block called Nick at Nite, and became a 24/7 service. That same year, American Express sold their stake in Warner-Amex to Warner Communications and was renamed Warner Cable; by 1986, Warner Cable turned MTV Networks into a private company, and sold MTV, RTS, Nickelodeon and the new VH1 network to Viacom for $685 million. In 1988, Nick aired the first annual Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards and introduced Nick Jr., an educational television block for younger children around preschool age. Nick Jr. was made to replace Nickelodeon's former preschool block, Pinwheel.

 Success in the 1990s and the 2000s (1990–2009)
On June 7, 1990, Nickelodeon opened Nickelodeon Studios, a television studio/attraction at Universal Studios Florida in Orlando which many of its sitcoms and game shows were filmed and entered into a multimillion-dollar joint marketing agreement with international restaurant chain Pizza Hut, which provided Nickelodeon Magazine for free at participating Pizza Hut restaurants . In 1991, Nickelodeon developed its first animated series, Doug, Rugrats, and The Ren and Stimpy Show. These series, known as Nicktoons, premiered on August 11, 1991. The network had previously refused to produce weekly animated series due to high cost.


The three Nicktoons found success by 1993, so Nickelodeon developed its fourth Nicktoon, Rocko's Modern Life, which was also a success. Also, in March 1993, Nickelodeon ran out of shapes with which to display their iconic orange logo. Because of this, they enlisted the help of viewers everywhere in the USA to come up with new shapes to use for their television promos. The final results began airing in late-June 1993. Later, Nickelodeon partnered with Sony Wonder and released top selling video cassettes of the network's programming until 1997. Doug and The Ren & Stimpy Show would both end production about that time, but still would air reruns up until about 2001. However Doug would find success when Disney Channel picked it up and placed it on its new block. It was called Disney's One Saturday Morning. Rugrats, on the other hand, returned from hiatus on May 9, 1997 . In 1998, The Rugrats Movie was released in theaters. The movie grossed more than $100 million in the United States and became the first non-Disney animated movie to ever earn that much. Then in May 1999, the channel debuted the animated series SpongeBob SquarePants, which quickly became one of the most popular Nicktoons in the network's history, and has remained very popular to this day, consistently ranking as the channel's highest-rated series since 2000.


On August 15, 1992, the channel extended its Saturday schedule to 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. ET with the launch of a primetime block called SNICK, which was home to shows such as Are You Afraid of the Dark?, Clarissa Explains It All, All That, The Amanda Show and Kenan & Kel; in 2004, the block was reformatted as the Saturday edition of TEENick , and the Saturday night block continues today without an official block name ; the TEENick branding, with its spelling altered to TeenNick, has since been used on the Nickelodeon sister channel previously known as The N. In June 1993, Nickelodeon resumed its magazine brand, Nickelodeon Magazine. The success of the Saturday primetime block led Nickelodeon to expand its programming into weeknight primetime in 1996, by extending its broadcast day to 8:30 p.m. ET on Sunday through Friday nights.

In 1994, Nickelodeon launched The Big Help, which spawned a spinoff program The Big Green Help in 2007; the point of the program is to change yourself and the earth by exercising and protecting the environment to show a difference to the earth. Also that same year, Nickelodeon removed You Can't Do That on Television from its schedule after a thirteen-year run and by the same year the network had launched a new sketch comedy show, All That. For many years, until its cancellation in 2005, All That would launch the careers of many actors and actresses including Kenan Thompson, Amanda Bynes, and Jamie Lynn Spears. The show's executive producer, Dan Schneider, would go on to create and produce several hit series for Nickelodeon including among others Kenan & Kel, The Amanda Show, Drake & Josh and Zoey 101, and more recently iCarly and Victorious. In October and December 1994, Nickelodeon sold Halloween and Christmas themed episodes of its Nicktoons through syndication to local markets across the United States, with then-new former corporate relative, Paramount Domestic Television .

In October 1995, Nickelodeon ventured in the World Wide Web and launched Nick.com. Initially the website was available only using America Online's internet service, but was later available to all internet service providers. The website's popularity grew and in March 1999, Nick.com became the highest-rated website aimed at children aged 6–14 years old. Nickelodeon used the website in conjunction with television programs which increased traffic. In 2001, Nickelodeon partnered with Networks Inc. to provide broadband video games for rent from Nick.com. The move was a further step in the multimedia direction that the developers wanted to take the website. Skagerlind indicated that over 50% of Nick.com's audience are using a high speed connection which allows them to expand the gaming options on the website. To accompany the broadband content, TurboNick was created. Initially it was a popup panel which showcased broadband content on Nick.com.

In March 2004, Nickelodeon and Nick at Nite were split up in the Nielsen primetime and total day ratings, due to the different programming, advertisers and target audiences between the two services; this caused controversy by cable executives believing this manipulated the ratings, given that Nick at Nite's broadcast day takes up only a fraction of Nickelodeon's programming schedule. Nickelodeon's and Nick at Nite's respective ratings periods encompasses only the hours they each operate under the total day rankings, though Nickelodeon only is rated for the daytime ratings; this is due to a ruling by Nielsen in July 2004, that networks have program for 51% or more of a daypart to qualify for ratings for a particular daypart.

Nickelodeon Studios closed down in 2005 and was converted into the Blue Man Group Sharp Aquos Theatre in 2007; Nickelodeon now tapes its live-action series at the Nickelodeon On Sunset studios in Hollywood, California and other studio locations in Hollywood and other areas. In 2007, Nickelodeon began a four-year development deal with Sony Music to produce music-themed series for the channel, help fund and launch albums in conjunction with the label tied to Nickelodeon shows and produce original songs for the programs to be released as singles as result; the only series produced under the partnership that was greenlit as a series, Victorious debuted in 2010, though a similar hit music-themed sitcom, Big Time Rush that debuted the same year features a similar partnership with Columbia Records, though with Columbia only being involved with the show's music, Sony Music became involved with that show's production midway through its first season. Big Time Rush soon, after less than a month on the air, became a hit series, garnering 6.8 million viewers for its debut on January 18, 2010, and setting a new record for highest-rated live-action series premiere in the network's history.

 Rebranding and plans for the future (2009–present)
Nickelodeon announced in February 2009 that Noggin and The N were to be rebranded as Nick Jr. and TeenNick to bring both channels in line with the Nickelodeon brand identity. Nickelodeon later announced in May 2009 that Nick Magazine would be discontinued by the end of the year. In July 2009, Nickelodeon unveiled a new logo for the first time in 25 years on the packaging of Nickelodeon DVDs coming out beginning that month, the Australian service, and that year's Nickelodeon Animation Festival, intending to create a unified look that can better be conveyed across all of MTV Networks's children's channels.
On September 28, 2009, the new logo is used across Nickelodeon and Nick at Nite, along with the rebranded TeenNick, Nick Jr. and Nicktoons channels in varying versions customized for brand unification and refreshment purposes; a new logo for Nickelodeon Productions also began being used in end credit tags on all Nickelodeon shows, even on episodes aired before the new logo took effect (end credit tags of programs airing on TeenNick, Nick Jr. and some shows on Nicktoons only use the current Nickelodeon Productions logo and variants for their respective channel's original programming on episodes of series made after the rebrand). New York based creative director/designer Eric Zim rebranded Nickelodeon, creating the new identity, logos, and the look and feel. In addition to creating the new Nickelodeon corporate logo, he created a whole new logo system to represent the company’s entire family of sub-brands .

Though it is mainly a wordmark, during the days prior to the 2010 and 2011 Kids' Choice Awards, the logo bug was given a blimp background to match the award given out at the show; and beginning the week of September 7, 2010 the logo was formed by a splat design (a la the 2006-2009 logo) in the on-screen program bug during new episodes of its original series. The new logo was adopted in the UK on February 15, 2010, in Spain on February 19, 2010, in Asia on March 15, 2010 and in Latin America on April 5, 2010. The "Nickelodeon on ABS-CBN" block on ABS-CBN in the Philippines adopted the rebranded logo on July 26, 2010. On November 2, 2009, a Canadian version of Nickelodeon was launched, in partnership between Viacom and Corus Entertainment ; as a result, versions of Nickelodeon now exist in most of North America.

On May 12, 2010, after an agreement was reached with Haim Saban , Nickelodeon agreed to air an eighteenth season of the series, and the production resumed in late 2010 for. The new show, Power Rangers Samurai, debuted in February 7, 2011; as part of the deal, Nickelodeon also plans to air the existing 700-episode catalog of the series on the Nicktoons cable channel later that year.

On January 1, 2011, Nickelodeon debuted a new original series, House of Anubis. The show, which was based on the series Het Huis Anubis which aired on an international version of Nickelodeon in The Netherlands, became the first original scripted series to be broadcast in a weekdaily strip and the first original series produced by the flagship Nickelodeon in the United States not to be produced in the United States or Canada.

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Whole or part of the information contained in this card come from the Wikipedia article "Nickelodeon", licensed under CC-BY-SA full list of contributors here.