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William Perry (11)

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William James Perry is an American businessman and engineer who was the United States Secretary of Defense from February 3, 1994, to January 23, 1997, under President Bill Clinton. He also served as Deputy Secretary of Defense (1993–1994) and Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering (1977-1981).

Perry is currently the Michael and Barbara Berberian Professor at Stanford University, with a joint appointment in the School of Engineering. He is also a senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. He is a senior fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and serves as co-director of the Nuclear Risk Reduction initiative and the Preventive Defense Project. He is an expert in U.S. foreign policy, national security and arms control.

Former Secretary Perry also has extensive business experience and currently serves on the boards of several high-tech companies and is Chairman of Global Technology Partners. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among Perry's numerous awards are the Presidential Medal of Freedom , Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun , awarded by the Emperor of Japan.


 early life and career
Born in Vandergrift, Pennsylvania, he graduated from Butler Senior High School in 1945 and served in the United States Army as an enlisted man from 1946 to 1947, including service in the Occupation of Japan. Perry later received a commission in the United States Army Reserve through ROTC, serving from 1950 to 1955.

Perry received his B.S. and M.A. degrees from Stanford University, and a Ph.D. in mathematics from Pennsylvania State University in 1957. He was director of the Electronic Defense Laboratories of Sylvania/GTE in California from 1954 to 1964, and from 1964 to 1977 president of ESL, Incorporated, an electronics firm that he helped found. From 1977 to 1981, during the Jimmy Carter administration, Perry served as undersecretary of defense for research and engineering, where he had responsibility for weapon systems procurement and research and development. Among other achievements, he was instrumental in the development of stealth aircraft technology. Not all of the programs he developed were as well-received, however. As journalist Paul Glastris wrote in the Washington Monthly:

As under secretary, Perry effectively controlled which emerging technologies and weapons systems would receive R&D funds and which systems the Pentagon would procure. Among the regrettable high-tech weapons systems he gave the green light to: the MX missile , the TV-guided Maverick missile , the F-18 fighter , the Aquila Remotely Piloted Vehicle drone , the DIVAD gun , and the Apache helicopter .

On leaving The Pentagon in 1981 Perry became managing director until 1985 of Hambrecht & Quist, a San Francisco investment banking firm "specializing in high-tech and defense companies." Later in the 1980s and up to 1993, before returning to the Pentagon as deputy secretary of defense, he held positions as chairman of Technology Strategies Alliances, professor in the School of Engineering at Stanford University, and a co-director of the Preventive Defense Project at Stanford's Center for International Security and Cooperation. He was also a member of the Packard Commission.

 later career
After he left the Pentagon, Perry returned to San Francisco to join the board of Hambrecht and Quist as a senior adviser. He also rejoined the faculty at Stanford University, becoming a professor at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, co-director of the at the Stanford University Center for International Security and Cooperation, and a member of the advisory board of the Roosevelt Institution.

Mr. Perry serves on the board of directors of Los Alamos National Security, LLC, the company that operates the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the board of directors for LGS Innovations, a wholly owned subsidiary of Alcatel-Lucent engaged in government services. Perry is an Advisory Board member for the Partnership for a Secure America, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to recreating the bipartisan center in American national security and foreign policy. Perry is also a member of the Board of Sponsors for the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. He is Member of the Supervisory Council of the International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe. Perry also sits on the Advisory Board of the Commonwealth Club of California and the Board of Directors of the Center for a New American Security, a Washington, DC- based think tank that specializes in U.S. national security issues.

In 1999, Perry was awarded the James A. Van Fleet Award by The Korea Society.

On January 5, 2006, he participated in a meeting at the White House of former Secretaries of Defense and State to discuss United States foreign policy with Bush administration officials.

In March, 2006, he was appointed to the Iraq Study Group, a group formed to give advice on the U.S. government's Iraq policy.

On June 17, 2006, Perry gave the featured commencement speech to engineering and science graduates at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

On October 1, 2008, Perry joined the financial board of the Thailand based manufacturing company, Fabrinet, on which he continues to serve.

On October 16, 2008, Perry was award the Sylvanus Thayer Award by the United States Military Academy.

In 2007, Secretary Perry joined three other eminent statesmen, former Secretaries of State George P. Shultz and Henry Kissinger, and former Senator Sam Nunn in calling for the United States to take the lead in reducing and eliminating nuclear weapons. Their op-ed, "A World Free of Nuclear Weapons", published in the Wall Street Journal, reverberated throughout the world, and is one of the key factors that has convinced political leaders and experts internationally that the conditions are in place to achieve that goal. In 2010 the four produced the documentary Nuclear Tipping Point. The film is introduced by General Colin Powell, narrated by Michael Douglas and includes interviews with California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev.

In 2011 he joined a team of former government officials from various countries, formed under the auspices of the Governor of Hiroshima Prefecture Hidehiko Yuzaki to prepare a plan for the total abolition of nuclear weapons. This project is titled Hiroshima for Global Peace.

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